Monday, June 29, 2020

A Movie Review Assignment Of Little Nine Rock Movie - 550 Words

A Movie Review Assignment Of Little Nine Rock Movie (Movie Review Sample) Content: Students NameCourse NameProfessors NameDateLittle Rock Nine MovieThis is a very great and educative movie that shows how discrimination occurred in Little Rock school during the period of 1957. It is about nine black students in Little Rock who managed to fight for their rights and were given an opportunity to go to Central High. There was racial discrimination and inequality against the blacks. The white students treated the blacks with disrespect, called them all sorts of names and violence was a daily activity. There came a crucial time when the blacks were not allowed to enter the school gate and only the white could go to class. Fortunately, they were allowed to enter through the back door. This brought about a lot of chaos and violence within the school. From the next day, each black student had a bodyguard to escort them to class, for protection against violence from the white. Even so, racial discrimination still continued. It was just the beginning of hostili ty and war. It reached a point when the blacks had to fight for their freedom. Freedom of expression and equality in education. They were tired of the tormenting and harassing in school as well as homes. When this civil rights movement took place, it was the time that blacks became true American citizens.This movie is historically accurate. For starters, it talks about the struggles of the black Americans trying to gain their liberties and freedom. The struggle against racial discrimination and equality in everywhere; be it in school, church, work or in the streets. It was decades ago that the fight for equality was very strong. Moreover, the film color and theme display the era in which the film was shot, indicating that this is in the past and fits the history class. This film is educative. It displays how the formation of civil rights movements in the past has brought about a much peaceful world today. It displays the struggles...

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

What Is the Mpemba Effect on Water

Have you ever wondered whether hot water really can freeze more quickly than cold water and if so, how it works? If so, then you need to know about the Mpemba Effect. Simply stated, the Mpemba Effect is the name given to the phenomenon when hot water freezes more quickly than cold water. Although the effect has been observed for centuries, it was not published as a scientific observation until 1968. The Mpemba Effect is named for  Erasto Mpemba, a  Tanzanian schoolboy who claimed ice cream would freeze faster if it was heated before being frozen. Although his peers ridiculed him, Mpemba got the last laugh when his instructor performed an experiment, demonstrating the effect. Mpemba and headmaster  Dr. Denis G. Osborne  observed the time required for freezing to start took longest if the initial water temperature was 25  Ã‚ °C and took much less time if the starting temperature was 90  Ã‚ °C.   Reasons Why the Mpemba Effect Happens Scientists arent completely certain why hot water sometimes freezes more quickly than cold water. The Mpemba Effect is not always seen -- often cold water freezes before hot water. The explanation for the effect likely has to do with impurities in the water, which serve as nucleation sites for freezing. Other factors may include: an effect from the evaporation of hot waterincreased convection in hot waterincreased tendency of cold water to supercool compared with hot waterpotential different amounts of dissolved gases in cold water compared with hot watereffect of frost formation -- hot water tends to freeze from the bottom while cold water tends to freeze from the topthermal conductivity, causing the container of hot water to melt through insulating ice in the freezer, potentially exposing the container to a colder layer beneath the ice Learn more about the freezing point of water. Sources Burridge, Henry C. Questioning the Mpemba effect: hot water does not cool more quickly than cold, Scientific Reports volume 6, Paul F. Linden, Article number: 37665, November 24, 2016. Jeng, Monwhea (2006). Hot water can freeze faster than cold?!?. American Journal of Physics. 74 (6): 514–522. arXiv:physics/0512262. doi:10.1119/1.2186331 Jin, Jaehyeok; Goddard III, William A. (2015). Mechanisms Underlying the Mpemba Effect in Water from Molecular Dynamics Simulations. Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 119 (5): 2622–2629. doi:10.1021/jp511752n Tao, Yunwen; Zou, Wenli; Jia, Junteng; Li, Wei; Cremer, Dieter (2017). Different Ways of Hydrogen Bonding in Water - Why Does Warm Water Freeze Faster than Cold Water?. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation. 13 (1): 55–76. doi:10.1021/acs.jctc.6b00735

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Effects Of Fracking On The United States And Its...

Introduction With the proliferation of fracking in the United States and its impact on so many different aspects of society from environmental to health and economic impact, it is an important topic that demands more research and along with more community awareness. Another aspect of fracking that is discussed much less than the environmental and public health aspects is that the people that benefit most from the fracking industry usually white affluent individuals do not live in the area that drilling process or waste disposal process happens (Johnston, J. j., Werder, E., Sebastian, D. (2016). It is also important to keep in mind how the elites of society are able to mold and manipulate public opinion to suit their needs (Davis, C., Fisk, J. M. (2014). It has been shown how persistent opinions from elites and media messages can sway public opinion in whichever direction they choose (Davis, C., Fisk, J. M. (2014). This paper demonstrates how the fracking industry not only poisons the environment it poisons communities through creating conflict and negative public health issues. Methods In their research review Charles Davis and Jonathan Fisk (2014) set out to examine public attitudes about the fracking industry, they based their findings on analysis of survey data of 2400 American adults. In their paper Shale Gas Wastewater Management Under Uncertainty Xiaodong Zhang , Alexander SunShow MoreRelatedFracking And The Gas Industry1573 Words   |  7 Pagesrapidly across the United States. High volume hydraulic fracturing, or â€Å"fracking,† is a process in which water and chemicals are injected into shale formations underground in order to release trapped natural gas. As fracking spreads throughout the United States, there are more and more reported cases of contaminated drinking water and illness among citizens living near fracking sites. Even with these cases, it is still difficult for the public to grasp just how dangerous fracking is to the publicRead MoreFracking And Its Wastewater Disposal1489 Words   |  6 PagesDat Ninh T. Drosselmeyer Engl 1113 – 088 14 November 2016 1393 words Fracking and its wastewater disposal are threatening human’s life In recent years, there has been an increasing concern about whether or not should factories keep using Fracking as their main method to extract oil and gas from the underground. Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing can be defined as the process of drilling down into the Earth and injecting high-pressurized water mixture into the ground, creating cracksRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing : A Technique Used For Extract Petroleum And Natural Gas From Deep Rock Formations Essay1508 Words   |  7 PagesHydraulic Fracturing, also known as â€Å"fracking†, is a technique used to extract petroleum and natural gas from deep-rock formations. The process utilizes high-pressure ‘fracking fluid’ which is a mixture of water, sand and other propellants coupled with a thickening agent. After drilling a wellbore to a depth between six and ten thousand feet, the bore curves off horizontally. This horizontal portion of the bore generally runs for a few miles underground. Once the bore is c reated, it is lined withRead MoreEssay Hydraulic Fracturing Must be Reformed1457 Words   |  6 Pagesever. In 2011, the United States used 18.83 million barrels of raw oil daily, and in 2010 19.18 million barrels of petroleum products and biofuels. In 2010 and 2011, that was nearly 22% of the world’s oil supply. (U.S Department of Energy) Previously inaccessible areas in the Marcellus Shale region of the United States, stretching from West Virginia to New York, are being unearthed by a controversial method of extracting natural gas, called hydraulic fracturing, or fracking. A Healthy alternativeRead MoreHydraulic Fracking : A Short Term Solution1361 Words   |  6 PagesHydraulic Fracking: A Short-Term Solution to a Long-Term Problem Development of infrastructure and market for natural gas, a product of hydraulic fracking, has blossomed in recent years. Interestingly though, hydraulic fracturing, a process that’s been around since the early 1900s, has recently become a topic of significant controversy, especially through the expansion of large reservoirs throughout the United States, including the Barnett Shale, the Marcellus, and the Bakken. However, the unsustainableRead MoreThe Process Of Hydraulic Fracturing1387 Words   |  6 Pageseconomy plus environment of the United States, but due to the large interdependencies and networks of our world today, impacts at a global scale are inevitable. By analyzing each scale individually starting with national, local and ending with global, it will become clear that each scale is interdependent and interrelated with one another. Scales: In our fast-paced and globalizing world, it is important to know how phenomena and processes effect scales within society. Between the global and localRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing: The Future of America’s Energy Essay1285 Words   |  6 PagesHydraulic Fracturing, also known as fracking, is not a novel concept. The hope of being able to access fossil fuels trapped inside layers of shale deep beneath the Earth’s surface was achieved by the process of fracking, developed in 1903 ( Over the last century, hydraulic fracturing has become an efficient and environmentally friendly way to access the natural gas needed to meet the United States’ high demands. With the condition of the environment rapidly deteriorating, theRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing And Its Effects1500 Words   |  6 Pagescreation and has lessened the economic dependence of the United States on foreign countries for oil consumption. Despite this, opponents of fracking cite env ironmental harms including various pollutions and contaminations. Like in the example with the mother and her children, â€Å"fracking† has the potential to contaminate drinking water (Banerjee, 2015). Although fracking can be beneficial, do its benefits compensate for the serious environmental impacts it could have? This paper seeks to answer the followingRead MoreFracking : An Unconventional Technique For Harvesting Natural Gas And Oil1301 Words   |  6 PagesFractually Inaccurate Hydraulic fracturing, commonly known and hereby referred to as fracking, has been around for decades- but it seems that it has only recently become a prominent point of contention in our society. Fracking is considered an unconventional technique for harvesting natural gas and oil. Where conventional wells drill straight down and can only collect from more free-flowing deposits, fracking allows for horizontal drilling into shale deposits and uses water pressure to enlarge pre-existingRead MoreFracking : A Better World Essay1289 Words   |  6 Pagesas a society to better the world around us. The vision of a better world differs individual to individual as some view economic growth and the development of a decaying energy sector to be symbols of a better world. To others, a better world is to create a habitat that can sustain our population and basic needs for a healthy lifestyle. One such advancement made in recent years that has brought forth an economic boon was the introduction of hydraulic fracturing – commonly referred to as fracking. With

Friday, May 15, 2020

Improving the Effectiveness of Sex Education in Schools...

The question is no longer should sex education be taught, but rather how should it be taught. Over 93% of all public high schools currently offer courses on sexuality or HIV. More than 510 junior and senior high schools have school-linked health clinics, and more than 300 schools make condoms available on campus. The question now is, are these programs effective, and if not, how can we make them better? Kids need the right information to help protect them-selves. The US has more than double the teenagers pregnancy rate of any western industrialized country. Teenagers have the highest rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of any age group, with one in four young people contracting an STD by the age of 21. STDs, including†¦show more content†¦Should we do everything possible to suppress teenage sexual behavior, or should we acknowledge that many teens are sexually active, and prepare them against the negative consequences? Emotional arguments can get in the way of an unbiased assessment of the effects of sex education. Other countries have been much more successful than the US in addressing the problem of teen pregnancies. Age at first intercourse in similar in the US and five countries have teen pregnancy rates that are at least less than half the US rate. Sex education in these other countries is based on the following components: a policy explicitly favoring sex education; openness about sex, consistent messages throughout society, and access to contraception. Reducing the Risk, a program for high school students in urban and rural areas in California, used behavior theory-based activities to reduce unprotected intercourse, either by helping teens avoid sex or use protection. Ninth and 10th graders attended 15 sessions as part of their regular health education classes and participated in role-playing and experimental activities to build skills and self-efficacy. As a result, a greater proportion of students who were abstinent before the program successfully remained abstinent, and unprotected intercourse was significantly reduced for those students who became sexually active. Postponing Sexual Involvement, a program forShow MoreRelatedThis Study Is Designed To Focus On The Effectiveness Of1305 Words   |  6 PagesThis study is designed to focus on the effectiveness of school based sex education programs in order to prevent teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). School districts across the United States have been teaching sex education program, however each varies with the type of program that is taught. The number of adolescents who engage in sexual activities has declined in past years. Nonetheless, the UnitedRead MoreEssay on Abstinence-Only Sex Education does work.1332 Words   |  6 PagesAbstinence-only Sex Education does work. Teenage sexual activity has sparked an outcry within the nation. With such activity comes a high price. Studies have shown that there has been a significant rise in the number of children with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), emotional and psychological problems, and out-of-wedlock childbearing. Sex has always been discussed publically by the media, television shows, music and occasionally by parents and teachers in educational context. Teens hear themRead MoreIs Sex Education Bad For Adolescents? Essay1526 Words   |  7 PagesSex education has historically been a controversial topic in the United States. Questions like: Is sex education bad for adolescents? How much should young adults know about sex? And will sex education lead to increased sexual activity? Have been argued about passionately for decades. Parents, politicians, academics, religious conservatives and feminists alike have debated the topic. There is a pervasive fear that sex education leads to higher sexual act ivity that contradicts the popular belief thatRead MoreTeenage Pregnancies And Std Contraction1342 Words   |  6 Pagesin rates of teenage pregnancies and STD contraction. What is it about the US and its approach to sexual education that produces such numbers amongst its youth? The prevailing sexuality education system in the US is abstinence-only sex education programs. Abstinence-only-until-marriage education in schools is highly destructive to its students in multiple ways. Abstinence-only sexuality education does more harm to students than good, and is shown to have adverse effects on its students. The CDC YouthRead MoreTeen Pregnancy And Sex Education Programs900 Words   |  4 PagesMarcia. â€Å"Teen Pregnancy.† CQ Researcher 20. 12 (2010): 267-287. Web. This particular source is an academic journal which goes into immense detail about the high rates of teen pregnancy and sex education programs the United States government provides. The article is informative and supportive of the sex education programs and explains the success rates of these programs in reducing teen pregnancy. Author Marica Clemmitt, former editor for other scholarly articles involving Medicine and Health, keepsRead MoreTeenage Pregnancy825 Words   |  4 Pagesprepare the target population on the negative outcomes of pregnancy. The overall goal should be to reduce the average across the state of Oklahoma to be at or below the national average within five years. This would be reviewed annually for effectiveness and strategies that are working would be reinforced and those less effective would be minimalized. Historically speaking, promoting a change in health behavior as far as sexual risk and family planning have only been mildly productive when mediaRead More Essay Quantitative Article Review1204 Words   |  5 PagesResearch This study intended to examine the effectiveness of initiatives implemented regionally, and determine if the leadership formation activities accomplished their intended purpose of successfully improving the leadership quality and the quantity of future candidates available to fill leadership positions. Research Questions The research question deals with the issue of how to address the critical shortage of qualified candidates needed to fill school leadership positions. Formation experiencesRead MoreThe Importance Of Screening And Treatment Rates For Minors And Policis1278 Words   |  6 PagesPolicies, laws, and programs have been developed with the goal of improving screening and treatment rates. In the United States, the following programs have been established. Minors may be nervous to seek treatment or screening for STIs because they are afraid their parents might find out. All 50 states and the District of Columbia unambiguously allow minors to consent to STI services while maintaining confidentiality. Eleven states require that the minor be of a certain age (generally 12 orRead MoreEssay on The PPACA: Obesity and Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs1106 Words   |  5 Pages(Harris Allgood, 2009, p.1314). This population of mothers is more likely to dropout then other adolescents in thei r age group (Harris Allgood, 2009, p.1314). In fact, more than 60% of teens who give birth before the age of 18 will drop out of high school, putting them at a greater risk of being impoverished later in life (Harris Allgood, 2009, p.1314). Additionally, the children of adolescent mothers are more likely to have complicated deliveries that can lead to chronic medical and developmentalRead MoreImproving Access:. I Will Examine Two Of The Most Prominent1656 Words   |  7 PagesImproving Access: I will examine two of the most prominent methods for improving access: universal early childhood education and equivalency/second chance programs for adults. One of the other prominent methods is improving access through information and communication technologies (ICTs). This is a popular idea as remote areas often lack formal and non-formal literacy programs. In these situations, education through technology like television, radio, and the internet is believed to be able to play

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Feminist Analysis Of The Monkey House And Miss...

A Feminist Analysis of â€Å"Welcome to the Monkey House† and â€Å"Miss Temptation† Kurt Vonnegut is known for his dark humor, wit, and imagination. He is consistently listed among the great American authors of the later twentieth century and his novel’s such as Cat’s Cradle and Slaughterhouse Five are considered modern classics. In this essay, I will focus on two of Vonnegut’s short stories â€Å"Welcome to the Monkey House† (1968) which takes place in a dystopian future where everyone is required to take pills that take all the pleasure out of sex and â€Å"Miss Temptation† (1959) which takes place in a small east coast town by looking at them through a feminist lense. Both stories come to the same ultimate conclusion that over-moralization of human†¦show more content†¦When Nancy counters this with â€Å"you certainly manage to make a woman feel like an object rather than a person,† Billy’s response is  "thank the pills for that.† This moment is presented as one of the first â€Å"lessons† that Billy teaches Nancy, that the pills are bad and somehow making her less of a woman. However, what it really suggests is that a woman isn’t worth listening to if her sexuality isn’t involved. Once Nancy reaches Billy’s hideout, other women are more than happy to assist him in raping her. It is later revealed that all of these other women were also once raped by Billy but have now â€Å"they understand† and â€Å"they’re grateful.† The fact that these victims would not only be happy to assist their rapist and kidnapper but also are described as almost worshipping him seems to suggest more of a Stockholm syndrome situation instead of one where Billy has â€Å"saved† them. Billy obviously holds the power within his â€Å"gang† and these women are willing to do whatever it takes to help him rape other women. The idea that all th ese women needed to become grateful was to be forcefully â€Å"deflowered† by Billy perpetuates the patriarchal idea that women need to be introduced (often forcefully) to their own sexuality. Instead of just letting the women stop taking their pills and then waiting for them to make their ownShow MoreRelatedLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pagesbeen broken all week. The prosecutor has also proved that Mayfield arrived at the grocery that night at about 2 a.m. The evidence for that is that the time was on the grocery receipt found in his wastebasket when the police arrested Mayfield at his house later that morning. Mayfield matches the general description of the robber given by the clerk at 2:30 a.m., when she talked to the police. So weve got to conclude that Mayfield was in the store at 2 a.m. and that the robbery occurred before 2:30

When Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( Aids ) - 772 Words

When Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) appeared in the early 1980’s on United States’ soil, people - including healthcare professionals - were confused about its nature and origin ( The public looked for a scapegoat and found it in the gay male contingent (Isay). What if a similar phenomenon happened, but in a keystone insect? Rowan Jacobsen, in Fruitless Fall, asserts that a comparable type of illness is affecting the honey bee, apis mellifera; the illness, now termed Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), seems transmissible and causes â€Å"extraordinarily high disease loads† (63-82). According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Research Service (ARS), there is no effective treatment for the disease and viral loads (Kaplan). Jacobsen is an award-winning author of five books, among them several anthologies, about the complex relationship between food and environment. In Fruitless Fall, he provides an comprehensive analysis of the honey b ee’s current agricultural existence, with special attention to human impact on its life. As with the AIDS epidemic, beekeepers, media, and agriculturalists began searching for a culprit. Jacobsen alleges that there is no singular cause for CCD - rather, a plethora of problems with which to contend. These include: monocultures and malnutrition, pesticides and antibiotics, urbanization and deforestation, as well as the usual virii, bacteria, and pests which predominate in raising bees (Jacobsen 68, 137-147). Likewise, he offersShow MoreRelatedAIDS, which stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome, has been a worldwide issue for many800 Words   |  4 PagesAIDS, which stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome, has been a worldwide issue for many years. People of all ages have been affected by this syndrome, from newborns to young teens, all the way to adults going all the way through their seniority. Individuals with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome have had ma ny obstacles to deal with. Some of which are problems not only having to do with their health, but also with the relationship that they have with the people around their communityRead MoreHuman Immunodeficiency Virus And Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome1477 Words   |  6 PagesHuman Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome In 1981, the first cases in the United States of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) developed in Los Angeles and New York (Fraser, Burd, Liebson, Lipschik, Peterson, 2008). The illness presented itself among several homosexual males who developed rare opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Kaposi’s sarcoma (Sharp Hahn, 2011). At the time, medical professionals deemed the infections to beRead MoreAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( Aids )1401 Words   |  6 PagesAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Duckworth 2 The history of the awful words AIDS and HIV has distressed the world for the past 40 years. It has infused panic in the world from its illness, fear, and regrettably death. AIDS was announced to the world in 1980. It is highly believed that this illness began in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. Prior to this time, it is undetermined of the number of people infected developed AIDS orRead MoreHistory Of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome1272 Words   |  6 PagesThe history of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in the United States starts in 1981, the year it became recognized by country as an official new strange disease. By 1982 it was recognized as Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It started in San Francisco, with five young homosexual men, they were presented with Pneumonia (PCP). As the year went on there were more reports of homosexual men presenting PCP and some of them were diagnosed with PCP and Kaposi ´s Sarcoma (KS). Others reportsRead MoreAi ds757 Words   |  4 PagesAIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a disease caused by a virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). The illness alters the immune system, making people much more vulnerable to infections and diseases. This susceptibility worsens as the disease progresses. HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person (semen and vaginal fluids, blood and breast milk). The virus is passed from one person to another through blood-to-blood and sexual contactRead MoreAIDS Essay examples1537 Words   |  7 PagesResearch Paper: AIDS Did you know that in the United States of America the sixth leading cause of death in people from their mid 20’s through their mid 40’s is AIDS (Zuger, 2010)? AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and is a disease derived from the virus known as Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The immune system gets broken down when someone has AIDS and it is basically the highest form of HIV. When a person has HIV, the CD4 cells get infected and start to deteriorate and once theRead MoreThe Importance Of Protein Energy Malnutrition776 Words   |  4 Pagesindividual’s diet during recovery. Conversely, severe deficiency in relevant nutrients would also decrease resistance to infections. Scientific studies have proven that nutritional deficiencies decrease immune function and frequently result in severe infections and in certain cases lead to death in children. In this regard, protein-energy malnutrition and Iron deficiency attract the greatest health concern. Protei n–energy malnutrition leads to a reduction in phagocytic cells, secretory immunoglobulinRead MoreHuman Immunodeficiency Virus : A Global Health Issue930 Words   |  4 Pagesglobal health issue, which leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome, a very serious and possibly fatal sexually transmitted infection. AIDS has existed within the United States since the mid to late 70’s, but is said to have originated as far back as the 1800s. Education is important in identifying and preventing AIDS. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV attacks the body’s immune system, rendering the immune system unable to fight off certainRead MoreReflection Paper on Hiv/Aisd1306 Words   |  6 Pagesto HIV/AIDS The first cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in the United States in the spring of 1981. By 1983 the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS, had been isolated. Early in the U.S. HIV/AIDS pandemic, the role of substance abuse in the spread of AIDS was clearly established. Injection drug use (IDU) was identified as a direct route of HIV infection and transmission among injection drug users. The largest group of early AIDS cases comprisedRead MoreLife in South Africa Before and After Apartheid 2891 Words   |  4 PagesLife in South Africa before and after Apartheid AIDS in South Africa 1. Why did I choose this topic? Personal interest I chose this topic because I find it quite interesting. My lack of knowledge I had only heard a little about how many people are infected with AIDS and HIV, and that it’s a problem that there isn’t a way to stop it, but I didn’t knew that much. So I decided it would be a great topic to investigate. Feeling sorry and wanting to help through more focus on the topic I feel very

Case Study Four Ethical Dilemma

Question: Discuss about theCase Study Four Ethical Dilemma. Answer: Introduction The different stakeholders involved in Elsies case included the Residential Aged Care Facility (RAC), nurse manager, the paramedics, the R.N. and Elsies family. Both the RAC and nurse manager had details of Elsies medical history and should have ensured that an advanced care directive (ACD) was signed on the same day that Elsie was moved into the facility. The paramedics were stakeholders in the case because they attempted to resuscitate Elsie against her wishes. The Registered Nurse (RN) on duty was the one who insisted Elsie to be taken to hospital when she developed the complications. Elsies family was also a stakeholder in the case as they knew Elsies wishes, they took her to the RAC and failed to ensure that she signed an ACD before they left the facility. The stakeholders might have caused Elsies death in one way or the other. Ethical and Legal Conflicts Elsies case presents a legal and ethical conflict. Whereas the guiding principles of the Australian charter of healthcare rights ensure that every Australian citizen gets high quality care that is safe from any health care facility, they also advocate for the patients rights to be involved in decisions involving their lives. In this case, the RAC, nurse manager, the paramedics and the R.N. were ethically obliged to provide quality care Elsie. According to Freegard and Istead (2012), the approach of health care in Australia is that health care professionals are supposed to return the human mind or body to a healthy state after episodes of ill health. This supposes that every person who experiences ill health shows up for health care services/to practitioner expecting and hoping that health care professionals would intervene and restore them to good health. The ethical and legal conflict in this case arises from the fact that the decision of the patient required consideration while health care professionals worked to restore her health. The paramedics and the R.N. are legally bound to ensure that the patient got the best quality care. However, these professionals are also bound to ensure that whichever decision they make, the patient is involved. Elsies decision was that she did not want to be taken anywhere and she wanted to be left as she was, in the suffering state she was in. It was not right for the healthcare professionals to leave her alone, knowing that if they did nothing, she would have died. She finally died and Elsies family are of the opinion that Elsies decision to be left as she was was not considered. Consideration of How the Conflicts Affect Stakeholders The RAC and nurse manager have the responsibility of ensuring that every person admitted in the facility receive the appropriate guidance. These stakeholders had details of Elsies medical history which informed them that Elsies health condition might worsen any moment, like it happened later. Although the Nurse Manager understood this and he/she even suggested for an advanced care directive (ACD), he/she did not insist to see that it was signed as soon as possible. After making the suggestion on Tuesday, the Nurse Manager should have called the family to ensure that the document was signed by the following day. The ACD could have guided the R.N. and the paramedics and the patient might have lived for more days. When Elsie developed complications on Friday night, it was the responsibility of the Registered Nurse on duty to ensure that her health was restored. The RN called the ambulance and insisted that she be taken to hospital for treatment. The R.N. was ethically and legally right on the action he/she took. Elsie did not have an ACD that would have prevented the R.N. from taking her to hospital. The only thing threatening his/her actions is the fact that Elsie wanted to be left alone but the R.N. denied her that wish. Elsies condition was an emergency and the R.N. would not have waste much time consulting the patients family. The paramedics on the other hand did their job as legally and ethically required. Paramedics respond to emergencies. In this case, when the R.N. called the ambulance, the paramedics arrived at the facility quickly. While in the vehicle to the hospital, Elsie suffered a cardiac arrest and the paramedics did their work of providing first aid through attempts to resuscitate her. According to Waldrop et al. (2014), paramedics spend more than additional 1200 hours training for advanced treatments and at least 110 hours for basic life-saving training. Their responsibility is threatened by the fact that Elsie had told them to leave her as she was and by the fact that she died. If Elsie did not die, the stakeholders might not have been sued by Elsies family. Dignity and Rights of Stakeholders Every person has the right to humanity, dignity and equality. Human rights Act provides a comprehensive legislative framework that protects people from any form of discrimination in order to promote fairness and equality (Book). The RAC facility is legally expected to ensure that every resident enjoys the right to quality care; full information about their health state; live in secure, homelike and safe environments; and maintains control over decisions in their daily lives (Leditshke, Crispin and Bestic, 2015; Jackson and Irwin, 2011; Parandeh et al., 2016). In this case, the nurses, the facility and the paramedics get attributed dignity as a result of how they treated Elsie. These health care professionals seemed to understand Elsies individual needs, they showed her sensitivity and compassion and they treated her in a way that people would equally be treated. Virtues and Principles of Health Care Ethics that Inform Professional Practice Nurses and paramedics involved in Elsies case seemed to hold virtues of a health care profession. According to Newham (2015), health care professionals who seek excellence in their work seek the virtues of benevolence, respect, compassion, justice, integrity, self-effacement, care, prudence, friendliness and sincerity. The compassion of the R.N. on duty made her feel sympathetic of how Elsie was feeling and was concerned for her suffering. Although Elsie requested to be left as she was, the nurse and paramedics worked hard enough to try and make her feel better. These professionals acted in the patients interest, acted in good faith and did not intend to harm Elsie. Relevant Codes of Ethics and Codes of Professional Conduct Several codes of ethics are relevant in Elsies case. Value statement 1 states that nurses value excellent nursing (Scully, 2015). The Nurse manager and R.N. on duty had to do what was right, on reasonable grounds, in order to keep the standard of nursing care they provide high. Just like all nurses, nurses in this case recognized that Elsie was entitled to quality nursing care and had to strive and secure it for her. According to value statement 1, nurses have the obligation to question nursing care that seems illegal or unethical (Hodkinson, 2011). The R.N. on duty participated to minimize risks for Elsie by insisting that she be transported to hospital. Although it was against Elsies wish, health care professionals wanted to ensure that she received quality care. Codes of ethics value statement 4 state that nurses value the access to quality nursing. This ethical statement requires the nurses to ensure that they uphold standards and principles of the right health and nursing care in terms of quality and safety, acceptability, availability and accessibility (Silvester et al., 2015; Tuckett, 2015). For Elsies case, despite her being 88 years and in a RAC, the R.N. wanted to ensure that she had access to quality care by calling an ambulance to take her to hospital. Value statement 5 states that nurses always value decision-making that is informed (White et al., 2014). On Tuesday, the Nurse Manager suggested that Elsie filled an advanced care directive (ACD). He/she wanted Elsie to make an informed and free decision, which she agreed to when her family members visited on Sunday. Although this did not happen, an advanced care directive (ACD) would have made the case to be different, in that Elsies decision was in writing, and therefore more bindin g. Value statement 7 in the code of ethics states that nurses value ethical information management. This code requires nurses to manage information professionally and with integrity (Johnstone, 2016). When Elsie was admitted in the RAC, her information concerning medical history was accurately recorded. It was on the basis of such records that the Nurse Manager suggested that she filled an ACD. Two codes of professional conduct apply to this case. Conduct statement 4 requires nurses to respect patients culture, beliefs and values. Nurses are supposed to protect and promote interests of the people they care for (Schadewaldt et al, 2016). The registered nurse on duty and the paramedics failed in this conduct as they did not consider Elsies interests. When she asked to be left as she was, the R.N. and paramedics ignored her interest and went on to provide care the way they knew best. The Nurse Manager had been informed that her family was aware of her wishes. Since the nurses did not want to consider her request of being left alone, they could have consulted her family, before it was too late, for the knowledge of Elsies interests and wishes. Conduct statement 7 requires nurses to provide support on the wellbeing, decision making and health of the patient. In accordance to this conduct, nurses are expected to inform people requiring care on the way forward when a partner, family member health interpreter or a friend is nominated to be their decision maker (Gonzlez-De Paz et al, 2012). In Elsies case, her family was aware of her wishes. However, the nurses should have provided Elsie with more information on how family was supposed to help her on decision making. Legally and Ethically Defensible Resolution to the Conflicts Elsies family argued that Elsies death was as a result of the stress she endured because of being moved from RAC facility to the hospital. It was wrong of them to sue the paramedics, the RAC facility and the R.N. for battery and assault. The R.N. and the RAC facility ethically and legally did what they were obliged to do. When Elsies condition worsened, they did what every other nurse, in good faith, would have done. Like any other health care professionals, the nurse acted in an attempt to return her ailing body to the state of health (Jones, 2016). RACs and Nurses hopes were that the interventions that they engaged in would have restored her health. Basically, the nurse and the facility acted within their ethical and legal boundaries. It was also wrong to sue the paramedics for attempting to resuscitate Elsie. Paramedics operate within the communities where they are exposed to professional liabilities. It is very important that they solidly understand ethics and law in order to avoid liability. Like in Elsies case, the failure of paramedics to perform their job as required by the legal community, jurisdiction regulations and the medical fraternity exposes them to criminal and/or civil liability. They paramedics who attempted to resuscitate Elsie seemed to understand all these as they did their job after determining that there were no ACDs such as the Do-Not-resuscitate order (Roth, 2014). The paramedics acted according to their three primary ethical principles which includes acting in good faith; not harming the patient; and acting in the best interest of the patient. In conclusion, the basic standards and freedoms considered by societies to belong to people are human rights. They enable all human beings to live with dignity. The right personal freedom, right to liberty and right to life are the fundamental principles in the discourse of human rights. Once health care professionals interfere with any one of them, the patient is considered less human and dignity is lost. Elsie was treated with dignity by the Nurse Manager, the R.N. on duty and the paramedics. Her death was not because of anyones negligence or unethical behavior. Although the RAC facility was supposed to ensure that Elsie filled an advanced care directive as soon as possible, it was nobodys fault that she died. 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